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What are the taxonomical aids? Give the importance of herbaria and museums. How are botanical gardens and zoological parks useful in conserving biodiversity?



Taxonomical aids: Taxonomical studies of various organisms such as identification, nomenclature and their placement in taxonomical hierarchy are useful in agriculture, forestry, industry and in general in knowing our bioresources and their diversity. Identification of species and their taxonomical details can be obtained by laboratory as well as field studies. The information gathered about the species is stored along with the specimens. In some cases the specimen is preserved for future studies. Herbaria, botanical gardens, museums, zoological parks etc., are several aids which help in taxonomic studies. Some important taxonomic aids are discussed below.
Importance of Bacteria: According to above codes the rules and guidelines for scientific names are as follows:

  1. Each organism is to be given a single scientific name ojf binomial system. Species having subspecies, varities or races are given a trinomial name.
  2. Biological names are generally in latin and written in italics. They are latinised or derived from latin irrespective of their origin.
  3. The first word in a biological name represents the genus while the second component denotes the specific epithet.
  4. Both the words in a biological name, when handwritten are separately underlined or printed in italics to indicate their latin origin.
  5. The first word denoting the genus starts with a capital letter while the specific epithet starts with a small letter. It can be illustrated with the example of Mangifera indica.
  6. The name of author, full or abbreviated, should follow the generic or specific name in technical description. Author’s name is not italicised e.g., Mangifera indica Linn. (Linn stands for Linnaeus). Author of a specific name is one who first publishes the name along with description of organism.
  7. The names of the divisions above the genus are not printed in italics.
  8. Two species belonging to the same genus cannot have the same specific name.
  9. When a name is changed due to certain reasons the original author’s name is given in parenthesis.
  10. Name of an animal family is formed by adding idae to the stem of the name of type genus and the name of a subfamily by adding inae.

Importance of Museums:
(i) Providing natural environment and open space to animals i.e., wild life animals.
(ii) Keeping them safe from their predators ensuring protection food and shelter.
(iii) Providing home to different native and exotic wild animals.
(iv) Involving in the rescue of endangered species.
(v) Facilitating breeding of animals and releasing them free.

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