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9 Major Lakes of India, Types | Gurugrah. in

Major lakes of India |

Major lakes of India –

What is a lake? –

Hello friends! Today, through this article, we will learn about the major lakes of India. Almost all types of geomorphic regions are located in India. Eg:- the Himalayan range, peninsular plateau, northern vast plains, and coastal plains of India, etc.

In this article, we will discuss what is a lake. A lake is a body of water large enough to support a significant population of aquatic life. Lakes can be found in both cold and warm climates and can range in size from a small pond to a large ocean. What is the name of the lake? There are different kinds of things in the world. How is art developed or created? What is the significance of these lakes in an area? Which lakes are most important in India? You will get acquainted with various facts about etc.

What is the lake called? –

The water in the pits on the surface of the earth is called a lake. That is, the gutters filled with water are called lakes. It is both natural and man-made. A small surface water pit is called a pond. Whereas a surface water trough of large size is also called a lake or ocean. E.g. Great Lake, Caspian Sea, Dead Sea, Sambhar Lake, Chilka Lake, Hussain Sagar, etc.

The lakes are known by different names in different places. In the Himalayan mountainous region of Uttarakhand, it is called ‘Taal’ such as – Nainital, Bhimtal, and Loktal (in Manipur), etc. The coastal region of Kerala is called ‘Kayal’. In the eastern coastal plain, it is called ‘lagun’ or ‘anup’. For example, Chilka Laguna.

Types of lakes –

Many types of lakes are found on the surface of the earth, which differs in size and characteristics from each other. Some lakes are permanent and some lakes are temporary. The water of some is salty and the water of some is sweet. Some lakes are developed by natural forces and some are created by humans. The formation process of lakes also varies. Which is as follows.

1. Tectonic Lakes

2. Volcanoes or Crater Lakes

3. Glacial Lakes

4. Fluvial Lakes

5. Aeolian Lakes

6. Lagoons

7. Dissolution Lakes

8. Landslide Lakes

9. Man-made Lakes

1. Tectonic Lakes –

These types of lakes develop due to surface movement. The movement of the surface occurs both vertically and horizontally. Due to this many cracks and faults arise on the surface. Due to the filling of water inside these cracks and faults, lakes develop. Similar lakes are found in the Jammu and Kashmir and Kumaon Himalayan mountain regions of India. Examples are Wular Lake, Tso Moriri, Pagoda Tso, etc.

2. Volcanoes or Crater Lakes –

Development of these types of lakes After the cooling of the volcano, a trough develops in its mouth which is called a ‘crater’ or ‘caldera’. And when it gets filled with water, it turns into a volcanic lake. Lonar Lake in Buldhana, Maharashtra is a good example of a volcano or crater lake.

3. Glacial Lakes –

Due to glacial action in snowy areas, especially in the Himalayan mountainous regions, many types of troughs develop due to the melting of snow or ice in these troughs, a natural lake is developed which is called a glacial lake. Snow cave lake and Lake Patanastre are lakes developed by glacial activities.

4. River lakes –

Due to river action in the river flow area, many types of lakes develop in the mountainous region, plain area, and deltaic areas of the river, which are called river lakes. These lakes are of temporary type, due to the depression of rivers and change in the water course, the river lakes are formed and destroyed. Riverine lakes, rafts (Tarapa) or blocked lakes, alluvial feather lakes, waterfall pond lakes, Gokhur lakes, delta lakes, etc. are the prime examples.

5. Vayudh Lakes –

The development of these types of lakes is seen in arid and semi-arid regions. Which are temporary lakes. These lakes are formed due to the water brought by temporary rivers during the rainy season in the troughs of these areas.

6. Laguna Lakes –

These types of lakes develop in those parts of the coastal areas where the continental submerged slope is high and the slope is slow. Simultaneously, construction also takes place in those areas where the width of the sea coast is found to be less and the sea coastline is torn. In these regions, it is called Kayal. Chilika lake (Odisha), Pulicat and Kolleru lakes (Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu), and Vembanad and Ashtamudi Lakes (Kerala) have prominent examples.

7. Liquid lakes –

These types of lakes develop in those areas where deposits of limestone or limestone are found under the surface. Due to the seepage of surface water in the chosen stones, a chemical reaction starts in it, due to which the liquefaction of the chosen stones starts and gradually a cave is formed in the interior of the surface here and when this When the upper ceiling of the cave collapses, a huge trough develops. Which the lake is formed due to the filling of water.

Examples of this type of lake in India are around Cherrapunji in Meghalaya and in Shillong, in Kumaon and Garhwal Himalayas of Uttarakhand, Bhim Tal, Lok Tal, etc.

8. Landslide Lakes –

The formation of these lakes is seen in the deep valleys of the Himalayan mountainous regions. Many factors responsible for landslides are present in these mountainous areas, due to which landslide activities often occur in these areas. Due to this, the flow of water in the deep valleys gets obstructed and this valley takes the form of a lake. These lakes are mostly temporary lakes.

9. Man-made lakes –

Under this those lakes are included. Which is created by human activities. Human beings develop river valley multipurpose projects by building huge dams across rivers to fulfill multi-purposes. This leads to the development of huge reservoirs. Lakes are also formed by surface mining operations. Along with this, troughs are constructed on the surface for water conservation and irrigation, which also leads to the development of lakes.

There are many examples of such lakes in India such as Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar, Sardar Sarovar Dam, Tilaiya Dam, Hirakud Dam, Gandhi Sagar, Rana Pratap Sagar, etc.

Some of the major lakes of India are –

Wular Lake –

Wular Lake is the largest freshwater lake in India. It is located in Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is 15 km long and 10 km wide, with an average depth of about 5 meters. This lake is situated between Sopore and Bandipur. This lake is formed by tectonic activities. Its size keeps on decreasing according to the season. This lake receives water from the Jhelum river, and the Tulbul project has been developed at its mouth. This lake is a center of attraction for tourists. In this ‘Shikar’ (a type of boat) is run.

Dal Lake –

This lake is also a famous lake located in Srinagar, Jammu, and Kashmir. This lake is spread over an area of ​​18 sq km. This lake is divided into four parts the Causeway, Gagribal, Lokut Dal, Bod Dal, and Nakia. Many villages and groves are built on its banks, in which bags of flowers are located. ‘Shalimar’ and ‘Nishant Bag’ are particularly famous.

Chilka Lake –

Chilka Lake is the largest coastal saltwater lake in India. Its location is in the state of Odisha. It is a type of Anoop lake. Its size keeps on changing according to the season. Its area is 1200 sq km in the rainy season and 900 sq km in the dry season. It is a part of the sea which has been separated from the sea due to the deposition of sediments brought by the Mahanadi. It is a shallow lake with an average depth of 3 meters.

Sambhar Lake This lake is the largest brackish water lake in India’s terrestrial area, located in a place called Phulera, about 70 km west of Jaipur city of Rajasthan, from which salt is obtained. In this lake, small rainy rivers Mendh, Roopangarh, Khari, and Khandela come together. Its drainage area is about 5700 sq km. It is situated at an altitude of about 365 meters above sea level. In the months of November to February, thousands of migratory birds from North America and Siberia keep coming here.

Kolleru Lake –

This lake is situated between the deltas of Krishna and Godavari rivers in the Krishna and Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh. It is a freshwater lake. This lake is a natural habitat of about 20 million local and migratory birds. Millions of migratory birds come here every year from October to March from many Siberian and snowy areas of North America. This lake has been notified as a wildlife sanctuary/refuge area in the Indian Wildlife Protection Act 1999.

Pulicat Lake –

This lake is the second largest brackish water lake located on the border of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu on the Coromandel Coast of the eastern coastal region. Sriharikota Island separates this lake from the Bay of Bengal. This lake is 60 km long and 5 to 15 km wide. This lake is also the abode of many local and migratory birds.

Nainital Lake –

This lake is located in Uttarakhand at an altitude of 1,937 meters above sea level. Except for its southeastern part, it is surrounded by high mountains on all sides. The Balia River originates from this lake towards the southeast. This lake is 1,410 meters long and 445 meters wide and 26 meters deep. This lake is famous all over the world for its natural beauty.

Local Lake –

Local is the largest freshwater lake in North-East India. This lake is located in Manipur, Northeast India. It is famous in the world as a “floating island lake” because of the floating ‘Phumdis’ (floating islands) in it. Phumdis are mainly piles of vegetation, soil, and various types of organisms that keep floating. In this lake, there is a floating national park/garden named “Kebulamjao”.

Bhimtal Lake –

It is a natural and triangular lake that is situated 10 km north of Kathgodam in Uttarakhand. This lake is situated at an altitude of 1,332 meters above sea level, in the middle of it there is a small island that is made of volcanic rocks, and its length is 1,674 meters, wide. 447 meters and the depth is 26 meters.

Ashtamudi Lake –

This lake is a lagoon in the Colom district of Kerala on the western coast of India. Ashtamudi means ‘eight heads’ meaning eight branches. Due to the many branches of this lake, it is called Ashtamudi.

Vembanad Lake –

This lake is the largest lake in Kerala, it is a type of lagoon lake, on this lake is Wellington Island, where the national sailing competitions are held. India’s shortest national highway NH-47A is located on Bellington Island. National Waterway No. 3 passes through this lake.

Dhebar Lake (Jaisamand) –

This lake is the second largest man-made lake in India. This lake is spread over an area of ​​87 sq km, located about 45 km east of Udaipur in Rajasthan. This lake was built between 1687 and 1691 AD by Rana Jai ​​Singh of Udaipur. Its construction The dam has been constructed on the Gomti river of Rajasthan with marble rocks. It is also called the lake of seven islands due to the location of Jaisamand, Jaltaro, and the seven islands in it. It is a freshwater lake in Rajasthan.

Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar –

The largest artificial or man-made lake in India is Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar. This reservoir has been made on the Rihand river by making Rihand Dam. Which is a tributary of the Son river. This reservoir is spread over the Sonbhadra district of Uttar Pradesh, and the Singrauli district of Madhya Pradesh. Rihand Dam has been built by connecting Pipri hills at a place called Pipri in Renukoot town of Sonbhadra district of Uttar Pradesh. The height of this dam is 91.216 meters and the length is 934.45 meters. This lake is spread over an area of ​​181 sq km.

Hussain Sagar Lake –

This lake is also a man-made lake, it has been constructed by making India’s highest dam Bhakra Dam (225.5 m) on the Sutlej River. This reservoir is spread in the Bilaspur district of Himachal Pradesh. It is named after the tenth Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Gobind Singh. It has been constructed in 1976 AD.

Cholamu Lake –

Lake Cholamu is the highest point in India in Sikkim. It is situated at an altitude of 5,330 meters above sea level. This lake is located just 4 km south of the China border. The Teesta, a major tributary of the Brahmaputra river system, originates from this lake.


By Chanchal Sailani | October 06, 2022, | Editor at Gurugrah_Blogs.



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