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Classification of Vertebrates-Pisces, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves,Mammalia

Vertebrata –

Organisms in this kingdom have a backbone and skeletal structure inside their bodies.

Classification of vertebrates –

Vertebrates are all animals that are within the subphylum Vertebrata. Vertebrates make up the vast majority of animals, with over 69,963 species currently described.

The vertebrates are further classified into –

1. Pisces

2. Amphibia

3. Reptilia

4. Aves

5. Mammalia

1. Pisces –

There are about 50 different seahorse species. Despite their bony fish appearance, these creatures do not have scales, but rather a thin skin that covers a series of bony plates arranged in rings throughout their bodies. Each species has a different number of rings on its trunk. Some seahorses have distinctive crowns on their head, which is different for each individual. This is similar to how human fingerprints are unique. Seahorses also swim upright, something that is not shared by other fish. Seahorses are poor swimmers, so they are most likely to rest when their tail is wrapped around a stable object. They have long snouts and use them to suck food. Their eyes can move independently of each other. Seahorses eat small shrimp, small fish, crustaceans, and plankton.

Classification of fish –

There are about 28,000 species of fish in the world, and they are classified into five different groups. The classes of fish, commonly known as hagfish, lamprey, cartilaginous fish, ray-finned fish, and lobe-finned fish, can be found in the table below.

1. Hagfish Fish

2. Lamprey Fish

3. Cartilaginous fish

4. Ray-finned Fish

5. Lobe-finished fish

1. Hagfish Fish

Hagfish are a very primitive group of fish. They retain their notochord throughout their lives, and they lack scales and fins. They are classified as vertebrates because they have a skull. Hagfish are known for their thick and thin mucus. The mucus makes them slippery, so they can slip through the teeth of predators.

2. Lamprey fish

Like hagfish, lampreys also lack scales, but they do have fins and a spine that partially supports their body. The most distinctive feature of the lamprey is a large, tooth-lined, rounded pacifier around the mouth. Lampreys use their sharp suckers to feed on the blood of other fish species. The long, slimy mouth of a lamprey. The mouth of the lamprey is surrounded by a sucker that has teeth on it.

3. Cartilaginous fish

Sharks, rays, and ratfish are all cartilaginous fish. In addition to the cartilage common to other fish, these fish have complete spines on their endoskeleton. They also have relatively large brains. They are able to solve problems and interact with other members of their species. They are usually hunters with sharp senses. Cartilaginous fish lack a swimming bladder.

4. Ray-finned fish Ray-

Finned fish include the most common fish species, such as goldfish, tuna, salmon, perch, and cod. They have a bony skeleton and a swim bladder. Their wings have flexible bones that extend from the spine. Wings lack muscles, so their movements are controlled by muscles in the body wall. Their ray fins are similar to the fleshy fins of lobe-finned fish, as shown in the photo below. Bony fish fins. The fins of ray-finned and lobe-finned fish are quite different. How is the shape of the fins related to their different functions in the two classes of fish? Ray Finn (left), Lobe Finn (right)

5. Lobe-finished fish Lobe-

Finished fish are on the smaller side when compared to ray-finned fish. Their wings, as seen in the picture, consist of thin, pointed bones and muscular appendages. There are two groups of lobe-finned fish that survive today: coelacanths and lungfish.

Cartilaginous fish. All these fish come under the category of cartilaginous fish with jaws-

(a) Oceanic Whitetip Shark

(b) Ray

(c) Ratfish

The jaws of cartilaginous fish are very important. The jaws enable them to bite and break food into smaller pieces. This is a huge advantage as it expands the range of food they can eat. The jaws also make cartilaginous fish excellent hunters. If you’ve ever seen the movie Jaws, you know that shark jaws are very powerful weapons.

Sharks have very sharp jaws. Sharks have sharp teeth that are arranged in several rows. These predators are some of the strongest fish around, and most other fish will be no match for them.

2. Amphibia –

Amphibians are a class of animals that belong to the Chordata federation of the Animalia kingdom. These animals are multicellular and can live both on land and in water. This class includes a large number of different species. They are the first land animals that are not cold-blooded.

Classification of Amphibians –

Amphibians are divided into three orders.

The classification of amphibians is given below:

1. Apoda (Gymnophiona or Cecilia)

2. Eurodella (Caudata)

3. Anura (Saliantia)

i. Apoda (Gymnophyona or Cecilia)

Apoda is a creature without legs. The skin of these organisms is covered with scales. They are also known as “blind worms” because their eyes are covered with skin or bone. The tentacles on their heads are organs that can detect underground chemicals.

This helps the creatures to locate their prey. They have venom glands that can inject powerful venom. They secrete mucus to reduce water loss.

ii. Eurodella

These are tailed creatures. The body is elongated by four equally sized organs. The skin is smooth but contains poison glands. Internal fertilization. They eat insects and other small organisms. They are often found under leaf litter, in soil, or in water.

In South America, most breeding occurs during the winter. There is very little difference between a man and a woman. The spermatophore is used for internal fertilization. They have a hidden respiratory system.

iii. Anura (Saliantia)

There are an estimated 3400 species of frogs in the world. They have four parts: head, body, arms, and legs. The front limbs are long and adapted for jumping. The head and trunk are intertwined. The tail is present only in the larval stage, and it is lost in adults. Fertilization occurs outside the body and eggs are laid in water. For example, some frogs and toads have smooth skin, while others have rough skin.

1. Coelacanth

There are only two living species of coelacanths, and they date back millions of years. The small size of the population of these animals puts them at risk of extinction.

2. Lungfish

Lungfish have a breathing organ that is similar to the human lung. The organ is an adaptation of the swim bladder that helps fish swim. This helps them survive longer out of water.

3. Reptilia –

These were the first organisms to be adapted to live on land. It is believed that they evolved from amphibians millions of years ago. There are over 10,000 different species of reptiles on Earth. They are animals belonging to the phylum Chordata of the Animal Kingdom. They are cold-blooded and move around using their scales.

The skulls of reptiles are shaped in a way that gives them an efficient and powerful jaw action. The modification also lightens the scalp.

Classification of Reptiles –

The reptile class is divided into three major subclasses:

1. Anapsida

2. Parapsida

3. Diapsida

i. Anapsida

The dermal bones form a complete roof over the skull with no temporal fossae. These are subdivided into Cotylosauria and Chelonia. Modern chelonians are classified according to the method of retracting the head in the shell. Turtles, tortoises, and terrapins belong to this group.

ii. Parapsida

These reptiles possess one temporal fossa present high up on the skull. Protostars, Nothosaurs, and Placodonts showed this type of skull. The two largest groups among these were Ichthyosaurs and Plesiosaurus. These became extinct at the end of the Cretaceous period when several other reptiles including dinosaurs died.

iii. Diapsida

There are two temporal vacuities in the skull. They are diverse of all reptiles. The dinosaurs and pterosaurs are included in this group. These are divided into two major groups- Archosauria and Lepidosauria.

Eg., Crocodilus, Chameleon

4. Aves –

Aves are animals that belong to the Chordata phylum. It has about 9,000 species. A bird’s anatomy is adapted to allow it to fly. All birds belong to the Aves category. Birds show courtship, parental care, nest building, and territorial behavior.

Classification of Aves –

The Aves class is divided into two categories:

1. Archaeornithes

2. Neornithes

i. Archaeornithes – This type of bird has become extinct. They had a beak with a long tail like a lizard.

e.g., Archeopteryx

2. Neornithes – These include both existing and extinct birds. They have no teeth and a short tail.

For example, Penguin, Gray Heron, Kingfisher, Duck, etc.

5. Mammalia –

Mammals are animals of the mammalian class. Mammals are one of the most advanced groups of vertebrates on the planet. They are classified as animals and fall under the category of mammals. They have unique characteristics that set them apart from all other animals. They are known to have mammary glands, which allow them to feed their babies. Spiders are distributed around the world and are adapted to their surroundings. From oceans, deserts and polar regions to rainforests and rivers, spiders are found everywhere.

Classification of Mammals –

Mammals are the largest group of animals in the animal kingdom. Based on their breeding, they are classified into three subcategories:

1. Eutheria

2. Metatheria

3. Prototheria

i. Eutheria

Mammals give birth to babies under this category. Babies are born inside the mother and receive nutrients from the mother through the placenta. Additionally, it has 19 commands, some of which are:

Command: Rodentia, Artiodactyla.

Example: Rats, Cows.

ii. Metatheria

Mammals in this suborder give birth to immature young, which remain in their mother’s pouch until maturity. For example, marsupials and kangaroos are two types of mammals. There are seven different orders of animals: mammals, reptiles, birds, amphibians, fish, invertebrates, and plants.

Order: Notaryctomorphia, Mode, Diprotodontia.

Example: kangaroo marsupial, microbiotheria, colocolo.

3. Prototheria

Also known as monotremes, the subclass of Potteries consists of spawning mammals. There are six different species in this order.

Order: Monotremata

Example: duckbilled platypus, echidna


By Chanchal Sailani | June 23rd, 2022 | Editor at Gurugrah_Blogs.



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