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Human Evolution-Historical geology |

Human Evolution |

After all, how did the origin of humans happen (History of Human Evolution) –

Human Evolution in Science –

Science has made many efforts to understand the invention of mankind, which has also yielded successful results. According to science, the history of man is related to the sea. For the first time species living in water were born like fish, germs living in water etc.

Gradually the cycle of time kept increasing. The creatures living in water and land came and started living their life, these were creatures like frogs, crabs etc. Time kept changing and nature was doing its work, sometimes there were floods and sometimes droughts, births and deaths were taking place.

Many species evolved during this period and many have lost their names. This sequence continued like this and dinosaurs, apes, chimpanzees, and orangutans came and after this the development of two-legged man.

According to scientific belief, the monkey is the creator of mankind. With the power of thinking, gradually the monkey-like creature learned to use two legs and started pacifying its hunger by plucking the fruits and vegetables of the trees connected with the earth.

Monkey’s intelligence started to develop and it started being able to take the form of a human and stop using four legs and started walking with the help of two legs. Now it started using all the parts of the human body. The tail was lost due to no use, but its remains are still found at the end of the spinal cord of the human body.

Religion in Human Evolution from the point of view of religion –

According to Hindu beliefs, humans are not an evolved form of monkeys. According to mythological texts, there is a difference in the origin of the monkey and the human race. There have been some changes in the structure of today’s human beings as compared to history. Such as height, age, complexion, etc. But the human as it was seen in ancient times is still visible today.

Just as other species of living beings are found on earth, in the same way there are many species of the human race which are present even today. According to religion, the human world has been created by God.

The first person who came into this world. He had given birth to mankind, but now another puzzle comes to the fore who was the first human? This puzzle has also been solved according to the Hindu religion.

According to the Hindu religion, the first great person to take life in the world was “Manu”. On the basis of this caste was named as a human race.


Human evolution has come into existence through the process of evolution, we get evidence of this from the fossils of those species of humans which have now become extinct. British scientist Charles Darwin first described the theory of evolution. Charles Darwin, in his book On the Origin of Species, said that the human race evolved from animals many years ago to its present form.


The sequence of human development started about 360 to 240 lakhs ago. To understand evolution, one must also understand the classification of animals. Zoologists classify animals into order, suborder, superfamily, family, genus and species.

About 360 million years ago in Asia and Africa, a class of mammals named primates (Naravanars) emerged. The early narwhals used to live on trees. Male monkeys are divided into two suborders Prosimi and Anthropoidea. Proximity (primitive animals) and Anthropoidea (monkeys, apes, humans). Anthropoidea is divided into three superfamilies.

Two of these superfamilies are monkeys. After that, about 240 million years ago, the third superfamily of hominids, which included apes, arose. The hominid subgroup evolved from hominids. The name of the family of which hominids are a member is ‘Hominidae’. Hominids are further divided into genus branches. Australopithecus and Homo come in these branches. The two species of Australopithics are Australopithecus africanus and Australopithecus robustus.

Humans and their closest ancestors fall into the category “Homo”, differing from Australopithics due to their larger brain size. Scientists have divided Homo into species called Homo habilis, Homo erectus and Homo sapiens. Humans are part of the Homo sapiens species. Neanderthals were the earliest Homo sapiens.

About fifty thousand years ago the population of Neanderthal started declining and this species became extinct about 34 thousand years ago. With the evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens, the size of the brain grew and evolved. Human beings moulded themselves culturally and thus gradually evolved into the human race.

Darwin’s theory was mainly based on three things.

1. RADIANT VARIATION The development of a normal organism leads to change in the developed organism. This change creates a difference between them. In this way, every living being gives birth to new changed forms.

2. ADAPTABILITY The newly changed organism is more capable of surviving in a particular environment than other organisms.


Many biological properties of many organisms adapted to the environment will remain permanent and other organisms will perish or become extinct.

Human Species in India:

Very ancient fossils of human skulls have been found in the Potwar plateau under the Punjab province of Pakistan in the Shivalik hill region in the Indian subcontinent. These human skulls were called Ramapithecus and Shivapithecus.

In any case, there is no evidence that this species has spread to other parts of the Indian subcontinent. It seems that the hominid found in the Shivalik mountainous region could not lead to the emergence of humans in the Indian subcontinent and this species became extinct.

In 1982, a hominid skull was found at a site called Hathnaura in the Narmada Valley of Madhya Pradesh. It was described as Homo erectus or straight human skull. But after its physical examination, it is now considered to be proto-homo sapiens.

So far, the remains of Homo sapiens have not been found anywhere in the Indian subcontinent, although fossils of Homo sapiens have been found in Sri Lanka. This fossil is said to be from about 34,000 years ago.

In Sri Lanka, this period is of hunter-gatherer life of the Upper Pleistocene and Early Holocene. Modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) seem to have arrived in South India at the same time via the coast of Africa. This event happened around 35,000 years ago.

African Ancestor of Human Species:

The Earth is more than four billion and sixty million years old. Four stages are manifested by the development of its layer. The fourth stage is called the Quaternary, which has two parts, the Pleistocene and the Update (Holocene). The first was between 20 lakh BC to 12,000 BC and the second started around 12,000 BC and continues till date.

Primitive humans, who were not much different from monkeys, appeared on Earth about 30 million years ago. The appearance of Australopithecus is the most important event in the evolution of man. Australopithecus is a Latin word meaning southern ape. This male was a monkey and this species had the characteristics of both apes and humans.

Australopithecus originated about 55 lakh years ago to 15 lakh years ago. It was two-legged and had a protruding belly. Its brain was of very small size (about 400 cubic centimetres). There were some such traits in Australopithecus which are found in ‘Homo’ or humans.

Australopithecus was the last hominid. Therefore, it is also called proto-

Human or primitive man. Two million to 1.5 million years ago, the first human called Homo havilis appeared in East and South Africa. Homo havilis means hand man or artisan human. This first real human used them as tools by breaking stones into pieces and carving them.


By Sandeep Kumar | October 17, 2022, | Writer at Gurugrah_Blogs.



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