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Implications of the Human Genome Project for Medical Science-What is It? | Gurugrah





The Human Genome: What is It? | Gurugrah

The Human Genome: What is It?

The U.S. Human Genome Project was a 13-year endeavor coordinated by the Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health that officially began in 1990. The project was originally expected to take 15 years to complete, but rapid technological advancements pushed the deadline to 2003.


· identify all the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA,

· determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA,

· store this information in databases,

· improve tools for data analysis,

· transfer related technologies to the private sector, and

· address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project.


The project objectives In order to assist in achieving these objectives, researchers examined the genetic makeup of several nonhuman organisms. The fruit fly, the laboratory mouse, and the common gut bacterium Escherichia coli are examples of these.


The fact that the U.S. Human Genome Project was the first major scientific endeavor to address potential ELSI implications arising from project data is a unique aspect of the project.


The federal government's long-standing commitment to the transfer of technology to the private sector was another important aspect of the project. The project sparked the multibillion-dollar U.S. biotechnology industry and encouraged the creation of novel medical applications by licensing technologies to private businesses and providing grants for cutting-edge research.


In the February 2001 and April 2003 issues of Nature and Science, landmark papers describing the sequence and analysis of the human genome were published. View these papers' indexes to learn more about the lessons they taught.


News About the Human Genome What is a Genome? And why is it crucial?

All of an organism's DNA, including its genes, is called a genome. All of the proteins that every organism needs are encoded by genes. The organism's appearance, its ability to metabolize food or fight infection, and sometimes even its behavior are all influenced by these proteins.

DNA is made up of four similar chemicals that are repeated millions or billions of times throughout a genome. These chemicals are called bases and are abbreviated as A, T, C, and G. For instance, there are 3 billion pairs of bases in the human genome.


It is crucial to arrange As, Ts, Cs, and Gs in a particular order. All of life's diversity is based on order, which even determines whether an organism is a human or a different species like yeast, rice, or a fruit fly, all of which have their own genomes and are the focus of genome projects. Insights from nonhuman genomes frequently result in a new understanding of human biology because all organisms share DNA sequence similarities.


What are some of the practical advantages of studying DNA?

Revolutionary new approaches to diagnosing, treating, and eventually preventing the thousands of diseases that affect us may emerge from our understanding of the effects of individual DNA variations. Learning about the DNA sequences of nonhuman organisms can lead to an understanding of their natural capabilities, which can be used to solve problems in agriculture, energy production, environmental remediation, carbon sequestration, and health care, in addition to providing clues to human biology.


What ethical, legal, and social challenges does genetic information pose, and what steps are being taken to address them?


The study of the project's ethical, legal, and social issues is allocated 3% to 5% of the annual HGP budgets by the Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health, respectively (ELSI). HGP ELSI research cost nearly $1 million.


In the spring of 2003, Watson and Crick's description of the fundamental structure of DNA marked their 50th anniversary. This coincided with the completion of the human DNA sequence. The "biology century" has begun thanks to the analytical power provided by genome reference DNA sequences and other genomics resources.


Accelerated progress was a hallmark of the Human Genome Project. The rough draft of the human genome was finished in June 2000, one year ahead of schedule. The working draft was finished in February 2001, and special issues of Science and Nature published the sequence and analysis of the working draft. When the project was finished, additional papers were published in April 2003. The first five-year plan for the project, which was meant to direct research from FY 1990 to FY 1995, was revised in 1993 due to unexpected progress, and the second plan set goals for FY 1998. During a series of DOE and NIH workshops, the third and final plan, which was published in Science on October 23, 1998, was developed. The Sanger Centre in the United Kingdom and research centers in Germany, France, and Japan have made significant contributions to the global effort, which has involved 18 nations.


In the spring of 2003, Watson and Crick's description of the fundamental structure of DNA marked their 50th anniversary. This coincided with the completion of the human DNA sequence. The "biology century" has begun thanks to the analytical power provided by genome reference DNA sequences and other genomics resources.


Accelerated progress was a hallmark of the Human Genome Project. The rough draft of the human genome was finished in June 2000, one year ahead of schedule. The working draft was finished in February 2001, and special issues of Science and Nature published the sequence and analysis of the working draft. When the project was finished, additional papers were published in April 2003. Photo Observers have predicted that biology will be the most important science of the 21st century due to the rapid advancement of genome science and glimpses into its potential applications. The Human Genome Project and other genomics research already have a significant impact on life sciences research in terms of technology and resources. According to Consulting Resources Corporation Newsletter, Spring 1999, sales of DNA-based products and technologies in the biotechnology industry are anticipated to exceed $45 billion by 2009. The potential for commercial development of genomics research presents the U.S. industry with a wealth of opportunities.

Archival Documents

Five-Year Plans:

  • Third 5-Year Plan (1998-2003)

  • Highlights

  • Detailed List of Goals

  • Plan as presented in the October 23, 1998 Science

  • Oct. 1999 HGN article about plan acceleration: HGP Leaders Confirm Accelerated Timetable for Draft Sequence

  • Second 5-Year Research Goals of the U.S. Human Genome Project (FY 1993-1998)

  • Original 5-Year Research Goals (FY 1990-1995)

  • Synopsis of Original 5-Year Research Goals

  • Timeline of Major Events in the U.S. Human Genome Project and Related Projects

  • 5-Year Planning Workshops:

  • DOE BERAC Advisory Subcommittee Meeting Proceedings (1998)

  • JASON Evaluation Report of the Human Genome Project (1997)

  • Summary Report on the DOE/NIH Genome Informatics Meeting (1998)

ELSI Research Planning and Evaluation Group (ERPEG) (1997)

The Human Genome Project's resources and technology are beginning to have a significant impact on biomedical research and stand to revolutionize a wider range of biological research and clinical medicine. Researchers looking for genes associated with dozens of genetic conditions, such as myotonic dystrophy, fragile X syndrome, neurofibromatosis types 1 and 2, inherited colon cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and familial breast cancer, have been aided by genome maps that are becoming increasingly detailed.


A new era of molecular medicine is on the horizon that focuses less on treating symptoms and more on the most fundamental causes of disease. Numerous diseases will be able to be treated earlier if diagnostic tests that are faster and more specific are used. New drug classes, immunotherapy methods, avoiding disease-causing environmental conditions, and gene therapy-based augmentation or replacement of defective genes are all areas in which medical researchers will be able to develop novel treatment plans.


Some current and potential applications of genome research include

  • Molecular medicine

  • Energy sources and environmental applications

  • Risk assessment

  • Bio archaeology, anthropology, evolution, and human migration

  • DNA forensics (identification)

Agriculture, livestock breeding, and bio-processing Some current and potential applications of genome research include

  • Molecular medicine

  • Energy sources and environmental applications

  • Risk assessment

  • Bio archaeology, anthropology, evolution, and human migration

  • DNA forensics (identification)

Molecular Medicine

  • Improved diagnosis of disease

  • Earlier detection of genetic predispositions to disease

  • Rational drug design

  • Gene therapy and control systems for drugs

  • Pharmacogenomics "custom drugs"

Energy and Environmental Applications

  • Use microbial genomics research to create new energy sources (biofuels)

  • Use microbial genomics research to develop environmental monitoring techniques to detect pollutants

  • Use microbial genomics research for safe, efficient environmental remediation

  • Use microbial genomics research for carbon sequestration

Agriculture, livestock breeding, and bioprocessing

DOE started the Microbial Genome Program in 1994 to sequence the genomes of bacteria that can be used in energy production, environmental remediation, the reduction of toxic waste, and industrial processing. This was done to take advantage of new capabilities created by the genome project. The Genomic Science Program (GSP), a follow-on program, builds on data and resources from systems biology, the Microbial Genome Project, and the Human Genome Project.


The DOE's mission challenges in energy and the environment will be solved more quickly thanks to GSP's acceleration of understanding of dynamic living systems.

Despite the fact that we rely on the inhabitants of the microbiome, we are unaware of their number or nature: Under 0.01% of all microbes, according to estimates, have been grown and characterized. Sequencing the microbial genome will assist in laying the groundwork for knowledge that will ultimately benefit both the environment and human health. Further industrial applications of microbial capabilities will be beneficial to the economy.


New energy-related biotechnologies like photosynthetic systems, microbial systems that function in extreme environments, and organisms that can metabolize readily available renewable resources and waste material with equal facility will gain insight from the characterization of complete microbial genomes. The creation of diverse new products, procedures, and test methods that will lead to a cleaner environment are also anticipated benefits.


Biomanufacturing will make use of enzymes and chemicals that aren't harmful in order to cut costs and make industrial processes work better. Bleaching paper pulp, stone washing denim, removing lipstick from glassware, breaking down starch in brewing, and coagulating milk protein for cheese production all require the use of microbial enzymes. Microbial sequences may aid in the discovery of new human genes and pathogens' disease-causing characteristics in the health field.


Pharmaceutical researchers will also benefit from using microbial genomics to better comprehend how pathogenic microbes cause disease. These microbes' sequences will help reveal weaknesses and new drug targets.


Additionally, gaining a deeper comprehension of the microbial world will shed light on the strategies and constraints of life on this planet. Scientists have been able to confirm the existence of a third major kingdom of life and the minimum number of genes required for life thanks to the data generated by this new program. Additionally, we can now more precisely establish the diversity of microorganisms and identify those that are essential to maintaining or restoring the function and integrity of both large and small ecosystems using the new genetic techniques; Additionally, this knowledge can be utilized for environmental change monitoring and prediction. Lastly, research on microbial communities offers models for comprehending biological interactions and the history of evolution.


Risk Assessment

  • Assess damage and risks caused by radiation exposure, including low-dose exposures

  • Assess health damage and risks caused by exposure to mutagenic chemicals and cancer-causing toxins

  • Reduce the likelihood of heritable mutations Understanding genomics will assist us in comprehending human evolution and the biology that all living things share. Similar genes associated with diseases and traits have already been identified through comparative genomics between humans and other organisms like mice. The yet-unknown function of thousands of additional genes will be better understood through additional comparative studies.

New insights into the relationships between the three kingdoms of life can be gained by comparing the DNA sequences of complete microbe genomes: prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and archaebacteria.


Bioarchaeology, Anthropology, Evolution, and Human Migration

  • Study evolution through germline mutations in lineages

  • Study migration of different population groups based on female genetic inheritance

  • Study mutations on the Y chromosome to trace lineage and migration of males

  • Compare breakpoints in the evolution of mutations with ages of populations and historical events By looking at DNA sequences that are unique to that species, any kind of organism can be identified. Although direct characterization of very large DNA segments, and possibly even whole genomes, will become feasible and practical as DNA sequencing technologies advance, it will be less accurate to identify individuals.

Forensic scientists use data from a scan of approximately ten distinct DNA regions to create a DNA profile—also known as a DNA fingerprint—for the purpose of identifying an individual. A person with the same DNA profile for a particular set of regions is extremely unlikely to exist.


Agriculture, Livestock Breeding, and Bioprocessing.

  • Disease-, insect-, and drought-resistant crops

  • Healthier, more productive, disease-resistant farm animals

  • More nutritious produce

  • Biopesticides

  • Edible vaccines incorporated into food products

  • New environmental cleanup uses for plants like tobacco

With a better understanding of the genomes of plants and animals, we will be able to develop stronger, more resistant to disease plants and animals, thereby lowering the costs of agriculture and providing consumers with foods that are more nutritious and free of pesticides. Bioengineered seeds are already being used by farmers to grow crops that are resistant to insects and drought and don't need a lot of pesticides. Because their crops and herds are in better health, farmers have been able to produce more and reduce waste.


It has been discovered that crops like tobacco can be used in new ways. In the laboratory of one researcher, tobacco plants have been genetically modified to produce a bacterial enzyme that breaks down explosives like TNT and dinitroglycerin. By simply growing these unique plants in the polluted area, waste that would otherwise take centuries to break down in the soil can be cleaned up.


Gurugrah

 

By Chanchal Sailani | January 20, 2023, | Editor at Gurugrah_Blogs.

 



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