**Thrust – **

Thrust is a reaction force that is described quantitatively by Newton’s third law. When a system expels or accelerates mass in one direction, the accelerated mass will cause a force of equal magnitude but an opposite direction to be applied to that system. The force exerted on a surface perpendicular or in the direction normal to the surface is also called thrust.

Force, and thus thrust, is measured in newtons (symbol: N) using the International System of Units (SI), and represents the amount needed to accelerate a 1-kilogram mass at a rate of 1 meter per second per second. Does. In mechanical engineering, the force orthogonal to the principal load (such as in a parallel helical gear) is called static thrust.

**Example of thrust –**

Fixed-wing aircraft propulsion systems generate forward thrust when air is pushed in the opposite direction of flight. This can be done in various ways such as the spinning blades of a propeller, the propelling jet of a jet engine, or the ejection of hot gases from a rocket engine. Reverse thrust can be generated by reversing the pitch of the variable-pitch propeller blades, or by using a thrust reverser on a jet engine to assist in braking after landing. Rotary wing aircraft use rotors and V/STOL aircraft use propellers or engine thrust to support the weight of the aircraft and provide forward propulsion.

A motorboat propeller produces thrust when it rotates and pushes water backward.

A rocket is propelled forward by a force equal in magnitude, but opposite in direction, to the time rate of change of momentum of the accelerated exhaust gas from the combustion chamber through the rocket engine nozzle. This is the exhaust velocity with respect to the rocket, the time rate at which the mass is ejected, or in mathematical terms:

**T = v dm\ dt **

Where t is the thrust (force) generated, dm\dt is the rate of change of mass with respect to time (the mass flow rate of the exhaust), and v is the velocity of the exhaust gases measured relative to the rocket. For the vertical launch of the rocket, the initial thrust at liftoff must be greater than the weight.

Each of the three Space Shuttle main engines can generate 1.8 meganewtons of thrust, and each of the Space Shuttle’s two solid rocket boosters can generate 14.7 MN (3,300,000 lbf), together with 29.4 MN. In contrast, the Simplified Assist for EVA Rescue (SAFER) has 24 thrusters of 3.56 N (0.80 lbf ) each.

In the air-breathing category, the AMT-USA AT-180 jet engine developed for radio-controlled aircraft produces 90 N (20 lbf) of thrust. The GE90 -115B engine on the Boeing 777 -300ER, recognized by the Guinness Book of World Records as “the world’s most powerful commercial jet engine”, has 569 kN (127,900 lbf) of thrust until it is exceeded. Had not been. The GE9X fitted to the upcoming Boeing 777X at 609 kN (134,300 lbf).

**Concepts of Thrust – **

**Thrust on power –**

Thrust for propulsive power A very common question is how the thrust rating of a jet engine compares to the power rating of a piston engine. Such a comparison is difficult because the quantities are not equivalent. A piston engine doesn’t move the aircraft by itself (the propeller does that), so piston engines are usually rated by how much power they provide to the propeller. This quantity basically depends on the throttle setting, except for changes in temperature and air pressure.

A jet engine has no propeller, so the propulsive power of a jet engine is determined by its thrust as follows. Power is the force (F) it takes to move something a distance (d) divided by the time (t) it takes to move that distance:

**P = F d/t **

In the case of a rocket or jet aircraft, the force is exactly the thrust (T) generated by the engine. If the rocket or airplane is moving at an approximately constant speed, distance divided by time is just speed, so power is thrust times speed:

**P = Tv **

This formula sounds pretty surprising, but it’s true: the propulsive power (or available power) of a jet engine increases with its speed. If the speed is zero, then the propulsive force is zero. If a jet aircraft is at full throttle but attached to a stationary test stand, the jet engine does not produce propulsive power, although thrust is still generated. Combination piston engine-propellers also have propulsive power with the same formula, and will also be zero at zero speed – but this is for an engine-propeller set. Whether the aircraft is moving or not, the engine alone will continue to produce its rated power at a constant rate.

Excessive thrust If a powered aircraft is generating thrust T and experiencing drag D, then the difference between the two, T – D, is called excess thrust. The instantaneous performance of the aircraft largely depends on the thrust.

Additional thrust is a vector and is determined as the vector difference between the thrust vector and the drag vector.

**Thrust axis **

The thrust axis for an airplane is the line of action of the total thrust at any instant. It depends on the location, number, and characteristics of the jet engine or propeller. It is usually different from the dragging axis. If so, then the distance between the thrust axis and the dragging axis will cause a moment that must be opposed by the change in aerodynamic force on the horizontal stabilizer.

In particular, the Boeing 737 Max, with larger, lower-slung engines than previous 737 models, had a greater distance between the thrust axis and the dragging axis, causing the nose to lift up in certain flight regimes, requiring pitch up. IS- Control System, MCAS. Early versions of the MCAS malfunctioned in flight with catastrophic results, killing more than 300 people in 2018 and 2019.

By Chanchal Sailani | January 17, 2023, | Editor at Gurugrah_Blogs.

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